Wagyu were originally draft animals used in agriculture and were selected for their physical endurance with strong forequarters. This selection favoured animals with more intra-muscular fat cells – ‘marbling’ – which provided a readily available energy source. Japanese Wagyu are derived from native Asian cattle.

There is some evidence of genetic separation into the Wagyu genetic strain as much as 350 years ago. There were infusions of British and European breeds in the late 1800s, but the breed was closed to outside genetic infusions in 1910.

The variation of conformation within the Wagyu breed is greater than the variation across British and European breeds. These differences have produced a Japanese national herd which comprises 90% black cattle, the remainder being red.

  • Tajiri or Tajima – these cattle are descendants of Tajiri, a sire born in Mikata District of the Hyogo Prefecture. This is a large, influential sire line in which almost all strains within the Hyogo Prefecture are related to some extent. The Tajiri line has outstanding genetic excellence of meat and finely marbled beef but in combination with a smaller frame and lower growth rates. This line is famous for good temperament, transmitted by a large number of sires as well as cows. Famous are the names of “Kobe Beef” or “Matsuzaka-beef” from beef produced in Hyogo Prefecture using Tajiri bloodlines.
  • Fujiyoshi (Shimane) – this line of cattle are well balanced and produce calves with good growth rates and meat quality. They are also quite in temperament and exhibit a strong maternal ability in dams, which also have high fertility. The bloodline started in the Tomada district of Okayama Prefecture. While the number of key sires is relatively small compared to other lines, this line is listed as one of the major bull strains because of the excellence of its beef. Dai 7 Itozakura is a Fujiyoshi line bull, probably the most famous os the line.
  • Kedaka (Tottori) – this line formed in the Tottori Prefecture from the descendants of the sire Kedaka born in 1959. Typical characteristics of the line include good growth, larger frame type, good topline and overall balance. They are known for their fine, loose skin. Dai 20 Hirashige is an important sire of the Kedaka line. His semen is still used although the price per straw is over US$1000. He gained 84.7 points as an “Ikushu-Taroku” bull which was the highest honour in Japan of the time. The number of registered sons of this bull is very high.
  • Kochi and Kumamoto – these are red strains and have been strongly influenced by Korean and European breeds, especially Simmental.


What is Wagyu?

Wagyu (pronounced ‘wha-gyou’) is a breed of cattle native to Japan and is considered one of Japan’s national treasures. The Japanese word Wagyu can be translated to mean Japanese beef – as “wa” means Japanese and “gyu” means beef.

Some people may be familiar with ‘Kobe beef’, which is world-famous for its quality. Kobe beef is simply Wagyu that comes from the Kobe region in Japan.

Characteristically, Wagyu beef is highly marbled. This means that the muscle is finely interspersed with monounsaturated fat. This marbling gives the beef its “melt in the mouth” moisture and tenderness. When cooked, the marbling is absorbed into the meat and gives it tenderness and flavour.

How is Wagyu beef different from beef regularly consumed in Australia?

The quality and flavour of Wagyu meat is different from other types of beef commonly eaten in Australia. Some may describe the beef as a smooth caramel and buttery flavour that is intensely sweet and delicate.

This tenderness and flavour results in Wagyu beef being labeled the premium quality grade. Prior to Wagyu entering the Australian market, the Australian grading system was 0 to 6, with the best of the Australian breeds including Angus, averaging about 2. Since the introduction of Wagyu into Australia, the Australian grading system has been increased to 9.

What is marbling? Is this healthy?

While past public campaigns have educated the Australian public that lean beef is the only healthy beef to eat, the marbling in Wagyu beef has a different story altogether.

The heavy marbling in Wagyu beef, which is described as ‘an intra-muscular deposit of energy’, contains monounsaturated fats or lipids, the “good fat”. Research has shown that the monounsaturated fats in Wagyu can lower the harmful cholesterol levels in the body.

The marbling is also the reason for the unique flavour, texture, and moisture of Wagyu beef. The monounsaturated fatty acids (lipids) have a very low melting point (less than 7 degrees Celsius), which means that the beef literally “melts in your mouth”. When Wagyu beef is put onto the hot plate immediately the lipids become liquid and marinate the meat.

Is there a local market in Australia for Wagyu beef?

Wagyu beef is increasingly being seen in restaurants and gourmet grocers around Australia and is considered a luxury item. It’s a price tag of between $100 to $150 per kilogram for the best cuts, ensures the beef will be more of a special occasion meal for many rather than an everyday occurrence.

At the same time, Wagyu is still in its infancy in Australia and is still to achieve greater awareness with the general public. The Australian market will need to be educated on the attributes of marbling. After many years of the lean beef campaign, it will take time to explain the reasons for the marbled appearance of the Wagyu.

The export market for both boxed and live Wagyu cattle is expanding rapidly and Australia’s clean, green, and well-managed environment makes it a popular choice for international beef markets.

Can people buy Irongate Wagyu Beef in Australia?

Currently Irongate Wagyu Beef is exporting the majority of its beef. Domestically it is predominantly selling the beef to the restaurant trade and gourmet food suppliers through a local distributor.

A word of caution to consumers, until standards are tightened in Australia, beef can be labeled ‘Wagyu’ with less than 50 percent Wagyu genetics. The premium Wagyu beef should contain 100 per cent full blood Wagyu genetics. Consumers should clarify the origin and quality grade of the beef at the point of purchase.

How is Irongate Wagyu Beef different from other producers?

Irongate Wagyu Beef has consistently been achieving some of the best meat grades outside of Japan. Full-blood Wagyu cattle are increasingly being graded 9+, higher than the highest grade in Australia.

Irongate Wagyu Beef’s breeding program is based on tried and proven traditional Japanese farming practices that have been successfully adapted to Australian conditions.

Irongate Wagyu Beef calves are raised on their mother’s milk and pasture for the first 15 months, which is the most natural and healthy method, and leaves them free from respiratory problems, disease, and antibiotics.

After this time calves are housed in an open-sided barn to protect them from the elements and are fed a secret ration for 500-600 days. The ration is free of genetically modified foods, allowing the Wagyu to be produced without the use of antibiotics and growth hormones.

It’s this secret ration that has been scientifically developed over the last ten years that gives Irongate Wagyu Beef its unique flavour, which is recognised internationally.

Irongate Wagyu Beef continually aims to produce its product in a natural and healthy way, which is increasingly important to consumers conscious about their health and the environment.

What is the difference between “Wagyu”?

In Australia, we now have three distinctive different strains of Wagyu Cattle. These are Purebred, Crossbred, and Fullblood. It is important that you know what the difference is.

Fullblood – This is the Japanese Black Wagyu that has not had any other breed introduced into their bloodlines. The Australian Wagyu Association defines Fullblood Wagyu as “The offspring of a Wagyu Sire and a Wagyu Dam whose forebears originate from Japan and whose pedigrees show no evidence of any grading up from the base animals”.
Purebred – The purebred Wagyu was developed as a result of the breeding of Fullblood Wagyu bulls with the base cow such as Angus. From this initial mating, called a first cross, the heifer is retained and mated back to a Fullblood or Purebred bull. The progeny of this second mating results in the F2. The progeny from the mating then produces the 3rd cross and so on until four crosses have been made, you then have a Purebred. This animal is recognised in the USA and Australia breeding programs as Purebred, not Fullblood. A Purebred is not recommended for breeding programs as the genetics are inferior. It is not recognised at all in Japan (and is called a Crossbred) as it contains inferior genes.

Crossbreed (or F1) – This description is the largest selling style of beef that is produced and sold in Japan. It is the result of a Wagyu genetics (sire) being crossed with another breed (in Japan mainly Angus or Holstein from the dairy industry). The resultant beef must contain 50% Wagyu genetics. This beef is purchased for home consumption or served in a family-style of restaurants. Crossbred beef is produced in Australia using Wagyu genetics (sire) crossed with Angus or Holstein. Raised and processed correctly these cattle produce a superior product to that of their dams breed.

It is the branding of this beef in Australia as Wagyu that is causing confusion and disappointment to consumers. Crossbreed beef does not have the same eating experience as Fullblood Japanese Wagyu beef. In Japan, farmers are not allowed to use the term Wagyu when marketing crossbreed (F1) beef. Guidelines have recently been instituted to disallow imported Crossbreed (F1) beef using the term Wagyu to stop any confusion for consumers. Irongate Wagyu Beef would be in favour of similar guidelines being introduced worldwide.

What about the word ‘Kobe’ we hear so often?

No doubt you have heard of Champagne, that famous wine region in France, and the celebratory beverage that is made there. What you may also be aware of, is that to use the name Champagne, the wine must be made in that highly specified region.

Not so with Beef. As a result, we hear the word Kobe used to describe all types of Wagyu. This is wrong. Kobe is a region within the Hyogo Prefecture and is undeniably famous for its Wagyu beef. The bloodline is exclusively Tajima. However, only beef from the region Kobe should be called Kobe. Unfortunately, like Brie, Camembert, and Cheddar in the cheese world, the name Kobe is not currently protected.